Thank you very much!! S on the base of bottles …………………. Thanks to Mark Newton for this info. Many such bottles with an initial on the base were purposely made with no glass manufacturer identification. Mark is seen mostly on the lower heel area on soda and beer bottles. The number usually precedes the letter, but in some cases the order may be reversed. These marks were used by ABCO at least during the period, and evidence from bottle collectors indicate these date code markings may have been used as early as when American Bottle Company was incorporated , all the way up to at least in some cases. S in a circle……………….
Boards By Mary Cheek Mills During the second quarter of the nineteenth century American glass factories reached a golden age in the production of fine free blown, molded, cut, and engraved flint lead glass. Prior to this time the domestic glass industry suffered from competition with England and the Continent. Tariffs levied on imported glass in and again in , however, served to stimulate American glass production and the number of glass factories increased dramatically. The blown flint glass of this period attests to the skill and ingenuity of American glass craftsmen who were intent on matching the quality of imported wares while meeting the demands of the expanding middle-class market.
Glass was hand made until fairly recently, and up until the midth century was hand blown using a pontil iron. A pontil iron was a thin iron bar that was attached to the foot or base of the vessel as it was being worked by the chair (the chair being the team of glassmakers who worked together to .
How to Date Antique Glass Bottles By John Peterson ; Updated April 12, Dating antique bottles requires knowledge of the evolution of bottle technology and the ability to research manufacturers and bottling companies. Although glass bottles have been made for a few thousand years, it was not until the 19th century that bottle use became common, coinciding with the industrial revolution.
By the mid th century, embossed lettering and marking on bottle bodies and bases, denoting manufacturers and products, made more precise dating possible. In addition to technology, products and manufacturers, certain types of glass colors will also aid in dating. Asymmetry is an indication of a hand-blown bottle. Look for mold seams. The earliest bottles were hand-blown by a glassblower with a blowpipe and lack seams. Is the bottle highly symmetrical, but lacking mold seams?
This type of bottle was probably dip-molded and dates after circa Is the base indented with an irregular to round pontil scar? This, and no mold seams, is another indication of a hand-blown bottle. A pontil rod held the nearly molten bottle during the final stages of manufacture. The scar was left when the pontil was detached from the bottle. Bottles Circa to Look for side mold seams.
The picture below at the left shows an iron pontil on the base jof a historical flask circa The middle picture shows an open pontil on the base of a cylindrical medicine bottle. The third picture shows the base of a milk bottle from just after the trun of the century.
HOME: Bottle Dating. INTRODUCTION. This page and associated sub-pages allows a user to run an American produced utilitarian bottle or a significantly sized bottle fragment through a series of questions based primarily on diagnostic physical, manufacturing related characteristics or features to determine the approximate manufacturing age range of the item.
Mouth-blown Bottle Dating Mouth-blown utilitarian bottles have several important diagnostic characteristics which can be helpful for dating. The primary features common to most mouth-blown bottles are addressed by Questions 4 through 7 which are listed below. Click the question link to jump directly to that question though it is highly recommended that users run through questions 4 through 7 consecutively since the answers for some lead directly to other questions: Does the base of the bottle have some type of pontil scar or mark?
Does the bottle finish “lip” have an applied finish, tooled finish, or a finish that does not fit either of these categories or you do not know? Does the bottle have some type of mold seam or seams within the extreme outside edges of the base? Does the bottle have embossed or labeled contents or volume capacity information? Other datable diagnostic features and bottle type specific date ranges for the listed diagnostic features are discussed in more depth within other portions of this website.
Lets begin with Question 4 right below Iron or “improved” pontil mark on a “cathedral” pepper sauce bottle ca. Sand pontil scar on a “Rickett’s Patent” liquor bottle English – This particular bottle has an dated blob seal making the dating relatively precise.
How to Date Antique Glass Bottles
History[ edit ] After the War of , American glass manufacturers began using molds as an inexpensive way to produce glassware similar in appearance to the very costly cut glass that was imported from Waterford, Ireland. Although no intact molds have been found, fragments of molds have been excavated at glass manufacturing sites in Sandwich, Massachusetts and Kent and Mantua, Ohio. It was made of hinged sections that could be opened and closed by means of a foot or hand operated treadle.
One of the vertical walls of the mold was permanently fastened to the base and the other walls were attached to it by removable pins. Designs were cut into the inside walls of all mold parts.
How to Date Antique Glass Bottles By John Peterson ; products, made more precise dating possible. In addition to technology, products and manufacturers, certain types of glass colors will also aid in dating. Pre Bottles. Examine the bottle’s symmetry. Asymmetry is an indication of a hand-blown bottle. Look for mold seams. The.
Date Hand Blown Glass This articles discusses the how to date antique hand blown glass with basic instructions and tips. Many people collect antique hand blown glass, such as drinking glasses and bottles. Most pieces date to the 18th and 19th centuries, as earlier glassware is difficult to find and somewhat rare. In order to determine the age of hand blown glass one needs to understand the history and technique of glass making, as well as shape, style, and decoration.
The process of hand blowing glass is thought to have originated in the first century BC. It is attributed to the Romans, who blew a molten substance into molds and then shaped it into vessels. Centuries later, the Babylonians developed the technique of using a long metal tube to blow molten substances used in glass-making and create bottles or drinking glasses.
DATING BOTTLES BY THEIR TOPS AND BASES
Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here – including the listed dating ranges – are noted.
MOUTH-BLOWN BOTTLES. Mouth-blown (aka “hand-made”) bottles were produced by skilled craftsmen who gathered the hot glass onto a blowpipe manually then formed the bottle with air pressure applied by mouth to the blowpipe, with (usually) or without the aid of a mold.
Lips Beginning collectors often wonder how to tell the age of a particular bottle. One of the most important clues to the age of a bottle is the style of the lip. In the picture below are shown a number of lip styles common during the last century. Lips of Nineteenth Century Bottles All of the above lips were applied to the neck of the bottle after it was removed from the mold.
A hot piece of glass was applied to the neck and then hand tooled to the proper shape. The lips of bottles made before were often crudely applied and careful examination shows these irregularities. Sometime around it became common practice to tool the lips with a lipping tool, an object which fit one piece into the opening of the neck while two other pieces clamped on the outside of the applied band of glass. Then with a twisting motion, the top was uniformly shaped.
Bottles produced during the last twenty years of the last century will show evidence of this twisting motion which left faint concentric rings around the mouth and upper part of the neck. This motion also erased the mold seam in the process. This is shown in the picture below on a bottle made sometime between and The lip, a round band, was finished with a lipping tool which erased the mold seam and left its tell tale concentric rings.
Earlier bottles, those made before , will not show these rings and lip may be more crudely applied with some drippy areas under the applied band.
DATING BOTTLES BY THEIR TOPS AND BASES
Wright Stacy 5 Small, but stylish and practical element of decor. This wine glass is a hand blown crystal glass element that is resistant to wear or damage. It also looks very attractive in dining rooms among other dining accessories.
Oct 8, A reference and image archive of Canadian Chalet and Lorraine Art Glass. | See more ideas about Hand blown glass, Dating and Quotes.
Principles[ edit ] As a novel glass forming technique created in the middle of the 1st century BC , glassblowing exploited a working property of glass that was previously unknown to glassworkers; inflation, which is the expansion of a molten blob of glass by introducing a small amount of air to it. That is based on the liquid structure of glass where the atoms are held together by strong chemical bonds in a disordered and random network,    therefore molten glass is viscous enough to be blown and gradually hardens as it loses heat.
With reference to their studies of the ancient glass assemblages from Sepphoris of Israel, Fischer and McCray  postulated that the concentration of natron , which acts as flux in glass, is slightly lower in blown vessels than those manufactured by casting. Lower concentration of natron would have allowed the glass to be stiffer for blowing. During blowing, thinner layers of glass cool faster than thicker ones and become more viscous than the thicker layers. That allows production of blown glass with uniform thickness instead of causing blow-through of the thinned layers.
blown glass drink glasses
The requirements for making a good mirror are a surface with a very high degree of flatness preferably but not necessarily with high reflectivity , and a surface roughness smaller than the wavelength of the light. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian , a naturally occurring volcanic glass. Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia modern-day Turkey have been dated to around B.
Mirrors made of other metal mixtures alloys such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India.
I have often wondered if my daughter is a full blown sociopath or suffers from sociopathic tendencies. For sure, sociopathy runs in my family: my paternal grandfather was a .
As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key. A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy.
Additional reference materials outside of this website must often be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a “feel” for the history of the bottle in question. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the early s to the mid th century. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below.
First this cautionary note: Bottle dating is not a precise science! Using physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i. There are numerous reasons for this: Like many industries making the leap from manual craftsman production to industrialization and automation, technological advances in bottle manufacturing were not immediately accepted by glass manufacturers or their workers.
Hand blown glass – that’s not Murano?
My name is David Whitten. Where was it made? What was the name of the company or factory where it was produced?
There are many types of glass mirrors, each representing a different manufacturing process and reflection type. An aluminium glass mirror is made of a float glass manufactured using vacuum coating, i.e. aluminium powder is evaporated (or “sputtered”) onto the exposed surface of the glass in a vacuum chamber and then coated with two or more layers of waterproof protective paint.
Roesel 3, Years of Glass Glass, that remarkable substance born of sand, alkali and fire, has fascinated and served humankind for more than 3, years – ever since some long-forgotten Middle Eastern artisan stumbled upon a way to control its manufacture. From quite beautiful luxury items prized by the pharaohs, glass has evolved into highly sophisticated functional uses deeply imbedded in the fabric of our twentieth century civilization. One doesn’t have to look beyond the confines of his own household to realize the vast variety of ways that glass serves everyday needs.
Glass used decoratively can take many forms. It can be made opaque or transparent, clear or colored, brittle or soft, durable or fragile. It can be molded or blown, cut, engraved, enameled or painted. In the hands of an artist, it becomes a medium that permits an almost limitless variety of techniques in the quest for a finished object of great beauty.
Hand Blown Glass Vases
Book Now to Make your own Pumpkin! Creating with Fire at the Eastside’s largest blown glass studio Interactive Classes Team Building Events Unique Parties and Celebrations We have a wide variety of gifts and artistic pieces available for sale in our Gallery. Whether you are interested in trying a new class, need a creative way for a team to build cohesion or are looking for a one-of-a-kind art piece for your home, Redmond School of Glass can help.
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Edit Article How to Make Glass. In this Article: Article Summary Using a Furnace or Kiln Using a Charcoal Barbecue Community Q&A Making glass is a very ancient process, with archaeological evidence of glass making dating back to before BC. Once a rare and prized art, manufacturing glass has become a common industry.
How to Make an Outdoor Wine Bottle Tree A brown glass bottle that looks vintage or antique from afar may not be as old as you think. Bottles designed for decorative purposes, or as special reissue editions from various liquid product companies, look much like bottle designs that are much older. While the physical shape of the bottle is somewhat indicative of its age, other telltale signs are a bit more accurate for pinpointing its origin and production date.
Irregular Shape Aging If the bottle seems very heavy for its size, has a blobby top area and looks like hand-blown glass, it likely is. Before molds were used to create a more uniform bottle, glass bottles were made entirely by hand by a skilled tradesman blowing air into a blob of hot glass attached to the end of a long pipe.
Such bottles may have air bubbles or lean slightly, or the glass may be thicker in some areas than others. The lip area may also be irregular in shape. This type of bottle has no seam whatsoever, as it is handmade. Bottles made by a combination of mold and hand-blowing replaced much of the purely hand-blown bottle crafting in the early 19th century.
Some small glass-blowing shops still blow bottles by hand as novelty or decorative products, but the glass is most likely much thinner than old glass and shows no discoloration.